Embossed stitch: Embroidery done giving it a raised effect look of an embossed impression on the fabric, as the name suggests it means to carve with a raised effect on the fabric. It provides a grainy appearance to the fabric.
Daraz: Before the invention of the sewing machine, garments were stitched together with hands. To innovate a design inseam stitching the chikan worker enjoined the two fabrics at the seams and cut patterns which were then hand sewn to give a seam design. The most popular today are the Machhli, Singhara and Sitara Daraz. This was mainly done on the male kurtas since the Lucknow kurta was a Kalidar kurta different to a Bangla straight kurta.
Banarsi: This stitch has no European equivalent and is a twisted stitch worked on the right side of the fabric. Working from the right across about five threads a small stitch is taken over about two threads vertically. The needle is reinserted halfway along and below the horizontal stitch is formed and is taken out about two threads vertically on the right above the previous stitch giving an effect of a weave of the fabric.
Bakhiya: Out of the 32 stitches, shadow work is one of the most popular stitches, in this stitch the filling is done on the wrong side while the design is bounded by a running stitch on the right side of the fabric to give it a neat look, since the stitch is made on the reverse side of the fabric, resembling the herringbone stitch.
Raised stitch: They have embroidered in a way that it gives a 3D effect. This stitch as the name suggests throws out a padded effect on the motifs. It has a raised effect and used in embroidery types like Stumpwork. It looks nice if contrasting threads are used, and it makes nice border stitch. It can also be used as a rich filling stitch by doing multiple rows of chain stitches over a broad row of straight stitches.
Tepchi: Tepchi is long running or darning stitch work with six strands on the right side of the fabric taken over four threads and picking up one. Thus by this, a line is formed. Sometimes Tepchi is used to make the “Bel Buti “all over the fabric. It resembles Jamdani and is considered the cheapest and the quickest stitch. This stitch is inspired by Jamdani. Since a few hundred years ago, Jamdani was not readily available in Lucknow. The Ruasa (elite class) who wanted to replicate this fabric, but since there were no weavers to make Jamdani in Lucknow, chikan workers were deployed to create something closest to Jamdani. After much consideration, the Tepchi stitch was created, and dense floral patterns embroidered. If done finely, it would be difficult to differentiate it from the woven fabric of Jamdani.
Pechni: Tepchi sometimes is used as a base for working other variations, and Pechni is one of them. Here the Tepchi is covered by entwining the thread over it in a regular manner to provide the effect of something like a lever spring and is always done on the right side on the cloth.
Zanzeera: Chain stitch usually used as outlines in combination with a line of Pechni or thick Tepchi. It is used to create the outlines of the motif and also used as filling stitch. Being exceptionally fine, used to finally outline the leaf or petal shapes after one or more outlines have already been worked.
Bijli: A buttonhole stitch is stretched with long threads to give it a shape of an earring.
Ghas Patti: It is the grass leaves formed by the V-shaped line of stitches worked in a graduated series on the right side of the fabric. It is occasionally done within parallel rows to fill petals and leaves in a motif, called Ghas Patti.
Ghas patti and Chana patti: During the Nawabi rule of Lucknow, the highfalutin ladies of that era employed chikankari workers for their personal attention and adorned themselves in the best attires handcrafted by the nimble fingers of these artisans. To create newer designs, different stitches are used. One such stitch was introduced as Ghas Patti, which is in the form of grass blades stacked in a row. An improvisation was done in this stitch by parting it from the centre like it is done in a hairstyle, thus it is called Maangdaar Ghas Patti. In a more or less similar way, short drawn stitches are made to give a leafy look, to be known as Chana Patti, resembling the tiny leaf of a pea plant. Chana Patti is similar to Ghas Patti, but its motifs are smaller.
Badla: It is a stem stitch wrapped around horizontal with small stitches. It is usually done to make veins of flower etc. It is used to make the outline of the eye and buttonhole stitch used to make the eyeball the stitches itself are very minute.
Makra: Long knot stitch with very minute stem stitches for protruding from the centre knot giving it a form of a spider.
Kauri: This is done with Chana Patti stitches leaving the centre blank, giving it a conk shell type of look.
Banjkali: It is made with elongated stitches preferably with 2 to 3 threads in the shape of bud without leaves.
Karan: Circular stem are the stitches surrounded by murri stitches making it look like a sunflower type of a motif.
Kapkapi: It is a type of stem stitch done in a very minute zigzag form.
Chasm-e-bulbul: As the bane denotes the eye of the nightingale to make it look beautiful. Similarly, to give this shape Balda stitch is used.
Dhaniya: It is a Phanda stitch giving a coriander seed work.
Phanda: Phanda refers to knots that are in the shape of Millets. Phanda is considered to be a more intricate version of stitches. However, the knots are much smaller and far more delicate. Mostly utilised in making the centre of the flowers in simple Chikankari design motifs. It is a knot type of a millet shaped stitch. The Indian dishes have coriander powder as an ingredient. In the days of yore, all the spices used for cooking were ground in the houses itself, so was coriander seed.
Meharki: The stitch used to make Meharki are on the lines of running stitch wound to a thread.
Ulti bakhiya: It is crisscrossing of thread works on fabric, the reverse of shadow work. It gives a look as if the embroidery in itself is the texture of the garment. The floats lie on the reverse of fabric underneath the motif. The transparent muslin becomes opaque and provides the beautiful effect of light and shade.
Murri: The Begums often supervised the cooking done in the zenana khana. Basmati rice when cooked used to be strained in a fine muslin cloth to drain off starch so that each elongated grain remained separately. After being put back in the pot, few grains of rice stuck on fabric caught the attention of the Begum who was fascinated by the design, asked her embroiderers to create it with a stitch and Murri stitch was created. This stitch in its fine form resembles the embossed grain of rice.
Flat stitch: Straight or Flat stitch is a class of simple embroidery and sewing stitches in which individual stitches made without crossing or looping the thread. These stitches are used to form broken or unbroken lines or starbursts, fill shapes and create geometric designs. This Embroidery is in level with the fabric, thus becomes a part of the fabric.
Hool: Hool is a fine detached eyelet stitch. In this, a hole punched on the fabric, and the threads teased apart. It is then held by small straight stitches all around and worked with one thread on the right side of the fabric. Can be worked with six threads and often forms the centre of a flower.
Rahet: It is a stitch worked on the wrong side of the fabric. It forms a solid line of the back stitch on the right side of the fabric. The same is crisscrossed, and threads of the fabric pulled along to give a different type of a mesh. Jaali work is another stitch of chikankari without damaging the construction of the fabric. Where in the warp and weft of the fabric is pulled together by a fine threaded needle to create close knitted holes giving an effect of a mesh. These threads of warp and weft are pulled in different ways to give different shapes of the holes. These designs were mostly inspired by the architecture of Jharokas (Windows) which had nets of different designs. Taj Mahal is also one of these stitches. It is named after the monument for its intricate Jaali work. Another stitch which comes under this category is called 'chhatta' which is shaped like a honeycomb. The Jaali stitches were created for the kurta (shirt) of a lady, to give it a sensuous look.
Hathkati: Long buttonhole stitches joined in a straight line.
Taj Mahal: It is a form of Jaali work giving it a hexagonal shape.
Rozan: This stitch is the same as Jaali.
Keel Kangan: keel kangan stiches are used to adorn the petals and floral motifs.